THE NEW YORK TIMES

<Oceans Are Absorbing Almost All of the Globe’s Excess Heat>

By TIM WALLACE

 


Where the Oceans Have Been Colder and Hotter Than Average


This year is on track to be the third consecutive hottest
year on record. Where does that heat go? The oceans, mostly.

 

Ocean temperatures have been consistently rising for at least three decades. Scientists believe that global sea surface temperatures will continue to increase over the next decade as greenhouse gases build up in the atmosphere.

According to a report by the International Union for Conservation of Nature released last week, the Southern Hemisphere has experienced intense warming over the past decade, with strong heat accumulation in the midlatitude regions of the Pacific and Indian Oceans.

Natural patterns such as El Niño and La Niña can have year-to-year effects on temperatures. Individual storms can also influence ocean temperatures for months or longer. But the overall temperature trends by decade reveal a backdrop of human-caused warming.

Last year, nearly all observed ocean surface temperatures registered above average because naturally occurring conditions caused by El Niño combined with human-induced warming. About a quarter of those observations broke record highs.

 

Heat Accumulates in the Oceans

Since 1955, more than 90 percent of the excess heat retained by the Earth as a result of increased greenhouse gases has been absorbed by the oceans, leaving ocean scientists like Eric Leuliette at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration feeling that 90 percent of the climate change story is being ignored.

For several decades, more energy has been absorbed than emitted at the top of Earth’s atmosphere. According to Gregory Johnson, an oceanographer at NOAA, the rate of energy gained between 1971 and 2010 was roughly equal to the power required to run 140 billion 1,500-watt hair dryersover the same number of years. The rate has only increased in the past decade.

This excess energy has largely been sucked up by the oceans, which have a huge capacity to store heat. As the oceans store more heat, however, they expand. Scientists have shown that over the past decade, this thermal expansion has caused about one-third of the rise in sea levels.

 

 

*VOCABULARY

atmosphere: 대기

hemisphere: 반구

latitude: 위도

longitude: 경도

altitude: 고도

midlatitude: 중간 위도

el niño: 상승 기류

la niña: 하강 기류

backdrop: 배경막

absorb: 흡수하다

emit: 내뿜다

 

 

 

ESL Podcast 1232

<Intimidating a Coworker>

 

Larry: How’s it going? You having fun? 

Anat: You know full well that this is out of my area of expertise, but I’m coping. 

Larry: Is that what you’re doing? It looks to me like you’re making a mess of things. 

Anat: Cut me some slack. I’ve only been working on this for a day and it’ll take me a little time to get up to speed. 

Larry: You know what I think? 

Anat: No and I don’t care. 

Larry: I think you’re in over your head. Why don’t you step aside and let someone competent do the job? 

Anat: No amount of heckling or trash talking will make me quit. I’m here for the long haul. 

Larry: We’ll see about that. People more qualified than you are have packed it in after they got a taste of how things are done around here. 

Anat: Talk all you like, but no amount of intimidation will get you what you want. 

Larry: And you know what I want? 

Anat: I think so. You’d like me to go away with my tail between my legs, but it’ll be a cold day in hell before that happens. 


 

 

*VOCABULARY

expertise: 전문 지식

cope: 대처하다

cut me some slack: 사정 좀 봐주세요

over your head: 자기 능력을 넘어서는

step aside: 비켜라

competent: 유능한

heckling: 빈정거림

trash talking: 더러운 욕설

long haul: 장기간

packed it in: 그만두다

no amount of ~: 아무리 ~일지라도

intimidation: 위협

go away with my tail between my legs: 꼬리를 말고 도망치는, 수치스럽게 떠나는